Sunday, 4 August 2013

TAITTRIYA UPANISHAD: EXHORTATION FOR RIGHT LIVING

2013-27 Taittriya Upanishad: Exhortation for Right Living


[Vedas are the most ancient literary monuments of the human race.  The subject of the Vedas is Supreme Knowledge; that is, Knowledge of the Eternal Reality behind the ever changing objective world of men and matter. Vedas have no authorship (apurusheya). Vedas were revealed to the Sages or Seers during the depth of their mediatation.  Upanishads are the most important parts of, and contain the quintessence of, the Vedas.

Taittriya Upanishad forms part of the Taittriya Aranyaka of the Krishna Yajur Veda.  It is divided into three parts starting with Siksha Valli.  The special feature of the Siksha Valli is that it contains the most beautiful and pithy address to the youth leaving the Gurukula.  This is analogous to the convocation address of the present-day universities.]

Exhortation for Right Living [Taittriya Upanishad - Siksha Valli - 1.11.1-4]

Having taught the Vedas, the teacher exhorts [instructs] the pupil:

Speak Satya [the Truth]. 
[सत्यं वद  ]  

Follow Dharma [the righteous principles] 
[धर्मं चर  ] 

Never swerve from the study of the Vedas. 
[स्वाध्यायात्  मा प्रमदः ]  

After offering the teacher the desired wealth
[आचार्याय  प्रियं  धनम्  आहृत्य ] 

[at the close of the studentship and remaining in family life] 
do not cut off the line of offsprings [children]. 
[प्रजातन्तुं  मा व्यवच्छेत्सीः ] 
  
Never swerve from Satya. 
[सत्यात्  न  प्रमदितव्यम्  ]

Never swerve from Dharma
[धर्मात्  न  प्रमदितव्यम्  ]

Never swerve from what is beneficial. 
[कुशलात न प्रमदितव्यम्  ]

Never swerve from prosperity. 
[भूत्यै न प्रमदितव्यम्  ]

Never swerve from learning and teaching. 
[स्वाध्यायप्रवचनाभ्यां न प्रमदितव्यम्  ] [1.11.1]

Never swerve from your duties to Gods and Ancestors. 
[ देव  पितृ  कार्याभ्यां  न प्रमदितव्यम्  ]

See your mother as God. 
[मातृ देवो भव  ]   

See your father as God. 
[पितृ देवो भव  ] 

See your teacher as God. 
[आचार्य देवो भव  ]  

See your guest as God. 
[अतिथि देवो भव  

Whatever actions that are blameless, those are to be performed, not others.

[ यानि  अनवध्यानि  कर्माणि  तानि  सेवितव्यानि  |  न उ  इतराणि  ]

Whatever actions among us that are praiseworthy they are to be embraced, not others. 
[ यानि अस्माकगं सुचरितानि  तानि  त्वया उपास्यानि  न उ  इतराणि  ]                      [1.11.2]

Wherever there are men of wisdom superior to us, offer them seats and remove their fatigue. [ ये के च अस्मत् श्रेयाम्सः ब्राह्मणाः  तेषां त्वया आसनेन प्रश्वसितव्यम्  | ]

Do not breathe a word in their presence [but hear them].  
[ आसने न प्रश्वसितव्यम्  | ]

[Whenever you give a gift,] 

Give with Sraddha [reverential faith]
 [श्रद्ध्या देयम्
  
Never give without Sraddha. 
[अश्रद्ध्या अदेयम्  ]  

Give according to your plenty
[श्रिया देयम्  ]

Give with meekness [modesty]; 
[ह्रिया देयम्  ]

Give with awe [fear of Dharma]; 
[भिया देयम्  ]

Give with understanding [of its need and usefulness]. 
[संविदा देयम्  ]                                                                                                                   [1.11.3]

If there should arise in you any doubt as regards any action [कर्म] or conduct [वृत्त ]then you should act in those matters as do the wise men there, who are impartial inexperienced, independent, kind at heart [not harsh] and devoted to Dharma.  

अथ  यदि ते कर्म  विचिकित्सा  वा   वृत्त   विचिकित्सा  वा स्यात्  ये  तत्र  ब्राह्मणाः  सम्मर्शिनः युक्ताः युक्ताः  अलूक्षाः  धर्म कामाः स्युः ।  यथा  ते  तत्र  वर्तेरन  तथा  तत्र  वरतेथाः  । 

Now, as regards dealing with persons of ill-fame, do you deal with them as do the wise men there, who are impartial in judgment, experienced, independent, kind at heart  and devoted to Dharma.  

अथ  अभ्याख्यातेषु  ये  तत्र  ब्राह्मणाः  सम्मर्शिनः युक्ताः युक्ताः  अलूक्षाः  धर्म कामाः स्युः ।  यथा  ते  तत्र  वर्तेरन  तथा  तत्र  वरतेथाः  । 

This is the injunction [rule].  
 एष आदेशः ]

This is the advice.
एष उपदेशः ] 

This is the secret meaning of the Vedas. 
 [ एष वेद उपनिषत् ]

This is the divine command.  
[ एतत् अनुशासनम् ] 

This should be observed. 
 [ येवं उपासितव्यम् ] 

Thus, indeed should this be observed. 
[ येवं उ च एतत् उपास्यम् ]  [1.11.4]

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1 comment:

  1. All the principles that need to be followed summarized in a crisp manner.

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